Work at AIM

We encourage smart people to invent and evolve

We're Looking For People With Passion

Active Interest Media is committed to developing a community of dedicated professionals with the ability and drive to provide the best service possible through their career path within AIM.

AIM seeks to promote from within while also incorporating the diverse talent that can be found outside of the organization.

Active Interest Media is a company actively acquiring and building market-leading enthusiast publications and other media platforms. We offer a competitive benefits package including medical and dental insurance, long and short term disability, FSA and 401k.

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Assistant Controller- Des Moines, Accounting

The Assistant Corporate Controller is an integral part of the accounting team. This position is ultimately responsible for the completeness and accuracy of the Company’s consolidated financial statements and is the leading resource for all accounting, budgeting and financial functions for all the groups.

Professional Qualifications and Desired Experience

Bachelor’s Degree in accounting or finance, CPA/MBA preferable

Minimum of 5 years’ experience as an Assistant Controller or similar role in a mid-size company

Proficient in Microsoft Office products with advanced Excel skills

In depth knowledge of GAAP and its practical application including revenue recognition

Experience with ERP and CRM systems, preferably Oracle Fusion Cloud and Sales Force

Primary Objective

Assists in the management of the accounting department, directly assigning, supervising, and reviewing the day-to-day activities of the accounting staff and support team. Responsibilities include but are not limited to Financial reporting, accounts payable, accounts receivable, sales and use tax, and oversight of payroll.

Professional Responsibilities

Leads the month end close process, ensuring transactions are complete, accurate, and in compliance with GAAP

Prepares financial statements timely and accurately

Ensures that all balance sheet accounts are reconciled monthly and any necessary corrective entries booked.

Trains, develops, and supervises the accounting department staff.

Oversees payroll, posts journal entries to record and completes all related tax reporting

Files Sales and use tax and other corporate filings as required

Oversees and serves as point of contact for external audits

All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual identity, national origin, protected veteran status, or disability status. Any offer of employment is contingent upon the results of a pre-employment reference check.

Apply Online


Assistant Editor- Garden Gate, Garden Gate

The assistant editor researches, organizes, writes and edits associated and assigned articles, departments, or features in print publications and regularly contributes new online content to the website. The assistant editor also creates a diversity of additional content by teaching seminars, creating video content, engaging in social media efforts and continually finding high-quality ways to further the company’s influence and success.

Professional Responsibilities

Job Duties

  • 50% Write and edit content for use in print and digital media.
  • 20% Use the latest SEO practices to create new online content every week and regularly contribute content to and edit the weekly newsletter.
  • 15% Lead seminars and organize, write and/or shoot video content for the website and social media accounts.
  • 10% Research, organize and accompany the photographer on 1 to 3 photo trips a year.
  • 5% Communicate with readers through email, social media or mail, including processing tips payments with the help of the accounting department.

Professional Qualifications

Professional demeanor is a must for all positions at Active Interest Media. In addition to courteous, friendly, businesslike behavior, the following qualifications are fundamental to this position:

  • BS/BA in Communications, English, Journalism or other relevant degree.
  • Minimum of five years’ experience in the field.
  • Working knowledge of MS Office; photo and video-editing software and website software is an asset

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Assistant Editor-Cuisine, Cuisine at home

The Assistant Editor is responsible for initiating, researching, organizing, writing, editing, and posting/uploading associated and assigned food content for social, web, email, print, video, promo, and/or podcast while maintaining Brand quality and standards. In addition, this position includes ideating, pitching, developing, and testing recipes, as well as serving as part of the talent pool for Brand videos.

Professional Responsibilities:

Professional demeanor is a must for all positions at Active Interest Media Holdco. In addition to courteous, friendly, businesslike behavior, the following qualifications and duties are fundamental to this position.

· Create recipe and cooking content for Brand social media, website channels, video, and podcast, and well as 1-3 articles (with original recipes as needed) for print issues.

· Optimize, repackage, and edit repurposed content for social media, website, print, video, and podcast, optimizing SEO as applicable.

· Actively engages with social media and web audiences.

· Work with Team to create and manage the social media content calendar and daily lineups. Work with Team to create and manage the web content calendar and lineups.

· Review promo creative and help develop new promo campaigns.

· Performs other duties as required or requested.

Professional Qualifications:

Professional demeanor is a must for all positions at Active Interest Media Holdco. In addition to courteous, friendly, businesslike behavior, the following qualifications and duties are fundamental to this position.

· Degree in English, Journalism, Communications, or Culinary Arts

· 1-3 years previous writing, editing, and/or recipe development experience (special consideration given to those with social/digital interest/experience)

· Demonstrate skill in writing, editing, and recipe development/culinary knowledge with a high degree of quality, speed, and accuracy

· Proven communication skills

· Enthusiasm for subject matter

· Proven ability to work with others in a cooperative team effort

· Proven ability to efficiently manage and organize own time

· Working knowledge of Contentful, Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, Twitter, YouTube, and Google Analytics

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Associate Editor-Numismatics, Collectibles

The Associate Editor assists the Editor and/or Publisher in all editorial aspects of the publications and related online activities. This includes editing content and commissioning artwork from external and internal writers, assisting with layout of the publications, writing unique and engaging content when needed, scheduling and posting content to websites and social media accounts utilizing industry best practices and responding to readers and contributors as needed.

Professional Responsibilities

  • 40% Edit submitted content and write unique content for print publications including Numismatic News, World Coin News, Bank Note Reporter and Coins magazine.
  • 25% Proof and review final designed pages of print publications prior to their release to the printers ensuring there are no typographical, mechanical or procedural errors.
  • 15% Schedule social media posts and online content for brand’s website daily. In addition, this position is responsible for the creation of two weekly eNewsletters. The Associate Editor is also responsible for tracking the KPIs associated with these efforts and reporting them in an online dashboard on a monthly basis
  • 10% Organize layout for printed publications, coordinating with advertising sales department and editorial department to ensure all needs are met and publication folio stays within budgeted parameters and delivers highest level of quality to the readers and advertisers
  • 10% Manage the data entry, customer service and processing for both the online and printed calendar of events on a daily basis.

Professional Qualifications

Professional demeanor is a must for all positions at Active Interest Media. In addition to courteous, friendly, businesslike behavior, the following qualifications are fundamental to this position:

  • BA/BS in Communications, English, Journalism or other relevant degree.
  • Proficient with use of AP style, Wordpress, Adobe Creative Suite (including Photoshop and InDesign), and Microsoft Office 365 strongly preferred
  • Experience using HubSpot and Google Analytics a plus.
  • Interest in coin or paper money collecting, as well as history in general would be beneficial to the ideal candidate.
  • Must be proficient in writing and editing ,adhering to AP style guidelines.
  • Employee must be adaptive, hard-working, well organized, able to multi-task and manage their time well to ensure all deadlines are met. Must be a team player, but also able to work independently.

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Digital Content Producer, Writer's Digest

The Digital ContentProducerwill be responsible for the overall content development strategy for the screenwriting community including, but not exclusive to digital, social media, and online education. Successful network skills are essential for recruiting contributors, instructors, and growing the readership as well as expanding revenue opportunities.

Professional Responsibilities

  • Responsible for conceptualizing, developing, and executing original/aggregated online content for ScriptMag.com by utilizing relationships with publicists and contributors to obtain exclusive content, conduct interviews, etc.

  • Recruit and manage contributors, including setting deadlines, collecting material, editing and scheduling posts, maintaining at least 3-5 new posts a week. Utilize SEO and social media best practices, as well as data analysis, to grow traffic and social media followers.

  • Manageall of the content and activity on ScriptMag.com including moderating the comments and updating product and event widgets.

  • Develop and manage a content strategy to extend the ScriptMag.com brand across all media channels focusing on audience needs, branding, usability & online education integration.

  • Manage theScriptXpert critique services, including tracking and collecting screenplays from customers, sending them to the readers, paying the readers, and returning the coverage to the customers in a timely manner.

  • Lead the ongoing transition of Writers Store by working with development and marketing teams on UX design, product strategy, competitive analysis, and promotional strategy.

  • Create screenwriting-related content for Writer’s Digest online (target 1 post per month) and WD print magazine, including, but not limited to, writing a regular print column (6 times per year).

  • Assist in finding screenwriting instructors for Writer’s Digest conferences, as well as teaching screenwriting sessions at theconferences.

  • Collaborate with the Script University director to identify new instructors and new opportunities with the goal of customer growth by analyzing data, understanding competitors, and having your finger on the pulse of the marketplace.

  • Represent Script and Writer’s Digest at popular writing conferences across the country, as well as use those events to find potential speakers, instructors and contributors for WD and Script.

  • Build and executeeNewsletter strategy and analyze email KPIs to increase engagement in collaboration with the marketing director.

  • Regularly analyze website data including traffic, sources, bounce rates, and conversions to maximize UX design, referrals, content topics, and potential products.

  • Develop industry-leading audience development assets to go along with a first-class strategy for driving email signups and customer growth.

  • Identify and drive potential partnerships within the Screenwriting industry with the goal of new product development, audience acquisition, and revenue growth.

  • Manage customer service on the community side by being the primary contact for the Script and Writers Store sites.

Professional Qualifications

  • Bachelor’s degree required

  • Minimum 3-5 years of strong editorial experience. Strongly prefer candidates with knowledge or familiarity of screenwriting and producing content for an online environment.

  • Must be able to track key performance indicators, anticipate and analyze trends, and adjust accordingly.

  • Excellent written and verbal communication skills required. Must have demonstrated ability in organizational, time management, problem solving and interpersonal skills.

  • Proven ability to meet strict deadlines.

  • Strong teamwork, ability to be adaptable and dependable.

  • Superior time management skills and proven ability to meet strict deadlines.

  • Knowledge of InDesign, Tempest, andHubspot preferred.

  • Must be proficient in a PC or MAC environment.

  • An ongoing customerfocus.

  • Must be a self-starter.

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Digital Marketing Manager, Catapult

The Digital Marketing Manager assists with projects across multiple platforms and channels, with a focus on digital, primarily email and design. Candidates must have in-depth knowledge about digital media, social media, and emerging media to lend strategic expertise to our marketing programs. They will create, design, and deliver integrated programs to support the expansion and growth of our clients and services.

Duties Include

· Understanding of digital media, including email, web banners, social media and more.

· Manage custom creative/content elements of proposed and sold digital programs as well as site promotions working in coordination with other team members.

· Use marketing automation tools (HubSpot) to create database segments, forms, and landing pages, as well as targeted and triggered emails based on customer preferences and actions.

· Write engaging copy for marketing materials.

· Keep track of project metrics, timelines and deadlines and communicate these to staff and/or clients as scheduled or requested.

· Work effectively with team and clients to communicate copy and image needs.

· Contribute creatively to program ideas, integrated advertising campaigns, process improvements and generally dream big.

· Work and communicate efficiently across multiple company divisions including Catapult Creative Labs, Home Group and Marine Group.

Responsibilities/Minimum Requirements

· Minimum 2-3 years of marketing & digital experience

· Intimate knowledge of email marketing and marketing automation software (preferably HubSpot) and Adobe Creative Suite

· Editing & writing proficiency

· Proficiency in Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel

· Ability to prioritize, multitask, time-manage, and adhere to tight deadlines while providing quality work

· Strong work ethic as a ‘self-starter’ with inclination to take initiation and ownership of tasks and responsibilities

· Outstanding written and verbal communication skills, solid interpersonal skills

· Attention to detail and strong organizational skills

· Desire to keep abreast of new market trends, events and new media

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Graphic Designer- Stevens Point, Collectibles

The graphic designer works with the editorial director and brand editors to transform raw text and images into visually appealing print publications that surpass the expectations of the publications’ readers and deliver on the overall vision of the brand. The graphic designer creates the cover as well as internal editorial content, collaborating closely with the editorial team and packages these files for the pre-press process. The graphic designer also designs logos, promotional materials and social media imagery as needed. This position reports to the General Manager – Collectibles.

Professional Responsibilities

  • Layout and design magazine stories and cover utilizing page map layouts
  • Collaborate with editorial staff for best design of cover and stories
  • Manipulate data or text in a variety of formats to create visually appealing displays of data within the publications
  • Submit images through scanning process conversion or special needs
  • Monitor production schedule and meet all deadlines, enlisting additional help from other designers when necessary.
  • Create web images, sales and marketing materials as needed

Professional Qualifications

Professional demeanor is a must for all positions at Active Interest Media. In addition to courteous, friendly, businesslike behavior, the following qualifications are fundamental to this position

  • Degree in Graphic Design or equivalent combination of education and experience
  • Skilled in Adobe Creative Cloud including InDesign, Photoshop, Illustrator and Acrobat DC; Microsoft Office programs including Word and Excel helpful
  • Handles multiple projects with tight deadlines simultaneously
  • Communicates clearly in written and verbal forms
  • Understands prepress and printing processes
  • Strong foundational knowledge of layout, color, typography, paper quality
  • Collaborates and communicates well and translates a vision into a solid measurable product
  • Exceptional time management and organizational skills in order to meet tight deadlines

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Manager of Data Analytics- Equine, Corporate

We are seeking a Manager of Data Analytics to rebuild our data collection and reporting systems, with responsibility over data strategy, ETL, business intelligence, marketing analytics and reporting. The manager of Data Analytics will report to the VP of Membership Services. This position will be involved with the implementation of a new business intelligence and data visualization platform to provide our teams with valuable insights to make intelligent data driven decisions.

Requirements:

5+ years working with data/analytics and business intelligence tools (Domo preferred)

Experience implementing data management and reporting solutions

SQL knowledge (mySQL, Postgres)

Experience communicating with top executives and collaborating with business leaders to leverage the value of data to drive and influence the business

Bachelor’s degree in computer science, MIS, mathematics, business, finance, or statistics

Preferred:

Working knowledge of membership/subscription/MRR business models as well as digital media and SVOD

Statistical knowledge and understanding of Statistical computer languages (R, Python, etc..)

Responsibilities:

Lead implementation of Domo platform to integrate all business data from multiple sources

Build dashboards that monitor all business KPI’s, marketing analytics, and key cost metrics to track performance of individual business units as well as create overall profile of individual consumer behavior and profitability

Provide regular reporting and guidance to top management on key business drivers

Integrate data from new business units and acquisitions

Learn key drivers for the different business units and provide best practice suggestions for improving growth and profitability

Our team is a passionate group of professionals in business units that include memberships, VOD services, media and events. We’re looking for an individual to join our team and help guide our growth to the next level through creative, intelligent data and reporting solutions.

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Multimedia Content Manager-Practical Horseman , Corporate

Practical Horseman, an award-winning multimedia English equestrian brand, is seeking an innovative, entrepreneurial professional who has proven experience with digital, video and print platforms. The ideal candidate is a self-starter with a team-oriented attitude who wants to combine a passion for the sports of dressage, eventing and hunters/jumpers with expertise in communication and content creation through a variety of platforms.

Requirements

• Experience developing strategy and creating content for multiple media platforms in the sports of dressage, eventing and hunters/jumpers, as well as tracking metrics and meeting/outperforming those goals

• Strong communication, project management and editorial skills

• Experience creating marketing opportunities for internal programs and external organizations

• Comfortable collaborating with team and working independently

• Some travel to competitions and video/photo shoots

Responsibilities

• Develop content for dressage subscription video on-demand (SVOD) site, including video content calendar, featured clinicians’ list, video-shoot list and video-release schedule

• Attend video shoots as needed

• Time stamp, review and upload videos to content web site

• Coordinate with marketing manager on organic and paid content promotions for SVOD

• Collaborate with content team to develop new ideas for SVOD

• Develop/write content for Dressage Today digital platforms—website, social media, newsletters, digital publication

• Assist in developing Practical Horseman magazine content (write, edit, assign)

• Oversee Dressage Today podcast (interviews, production)

• Assist with Practical Horseman digital platforms as needed

• Assist with Practical Horseman podcast as needed (interviews, production)

• Assist in creating sponsorable social-media programs for Practical Horseman

• Collaborate with content director to develop additional SVOD sites for Practical Horseman brand

Qualifications

• BA in journalism, communications, marketing or related field

• 7+ years related work experience

• Programs: Microsoft Office, Adobe InDesign, content management systems, video on-demand platforms, social media

• Knowledge of English equestrian sports

The equivalent combination of education and experience may be considered

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Production Coordinator, Marine

The production coordinator's main job is ad creation for all magazines. Ad creating includes creating new ads, making changes to existing ads or picking up ads from previous months. It is also the job of the production coordinator to proof all pages before they go to print. A coordinator is also responsible for uploading pdfs to the printer. Along with ad creation and uploads, coordinators also create spec ads, web design and marketing pieces for the magazines.

Qualifications:

  • Print production experience a plus
  • Adobe programs and Microsoft office knowledge
  • HTML knowledge a plus
  • Artistic design ability
  • HubSpot certification
  • Mac knowledge

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.


Production Manager- Equine, Corporate

The production manager position facilitates the processing of several print magazines including hundreds of individual advertising materials through the magazine print production department every month. This person is the key contact with the associate publishers, advertising clients and the liaison for client communication to the production department. The production manager coordinates materials with advertising sales staff, advertising clients and agencies. This position also coordinates the pagination of the magazine with the printer and the print quantity with the circulation department. The person in this role also handles print related Sales Force order entry and reporting. Finally, the production manager communicates with the accounting department on the billing of each publication after shipping the magazine pages to the printer.

Duties and Responsibilities

- Communicate with associate publishers and sales staff on ad sales closing.

- Coordinate book size with art directors and ad placement in the pagination of the magazine.

- Create job folders, receive and preflight ad materials verifying materials meet specified requirements

- Customer Interaction: communicate with advertising clients and agencies to ensure ad materials are to spec and delivered on time.

- Proofreading production ads and various information as needed.

- Filing, organizing, proofing and preflighting all submitted advertising materials

- Traffic: keep track of all ad materials, make sure correct materials received by deadlines

- Magazine shipping – communicate with art director for page completion

- Create the monthly ad index of all advertisers printing in the publications

- Build the dummy book for review.

- Review final PDFs for uploading to InSite, approve issue to print.

- Work directly with sales reps to enter their orders into Sales Force

- Manage and run sales related reports in Sales Force

- Create SalesForce reports to track ads in issues; confirm all ads are entered accurately & timely, attach digital tearsheets

- Pre-print inserts when needed, confirm correct inserts specs for clients

- Review & code printing invoices

- Provide printer & circ with documentation: weights, form breakdowns, ad %, label splits

- Assist in collection of information for quotes for special projects.

Requirements

- 4- year college degree with experience in publishing (niche consumer magazines experience a plus)

- Graphic design knowledge experience a plus

- Sales Force experience would be valuable but can also train for this

- 3+ years experience working in a publishing environment

- Strong knowledge of digital production

- Strong conceptual skills in layout and design

- Excellent attention to detail and process

- Strong time-management and team skills

- Excellent customer relation skills

- Ability to plan and organize

- Computer skills: Mac, Adobe Creative Suite, Pit Stop Pro, SalesForce, Excel

Flexible and capable of handing deadline pressure, accelerated timelines and unpredictable workloads

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Sales and Production Assistant- Equine, Corporate

The Equine Network is the largest cross platform horse group in the world – with events, memberships and marketing services in our wheelhouse, we produce world class products from printed magazines to videos to team roping competitions. You name it, when it comes to horses, we have it covered. We are a fast paced, ever evolving group and looking for the right person to join out team.

Position Overview:

As a Sales Assistant, you will be responsible for receiving and entering incoming media plans in a fast-paced publishing environment. Your primary responsibilities will be the timely and accurate entry of all customer orders, getting electronic signatures, and associated follow up, as well as assisting the group Salesforce Admin with related projects and activities.

Job Duties and Responsibilities:

• Enter customer media plans into the Salesforce system

• Monitor, review and manage open opportunities and follow-up with reps

• Review customer account information

• Enter in new accounts or convert existing Legacy accounts to active

• Review line item details including correct product name, start/end dates, print issue date, print issue availability, quantity, productions notes, and description

• Complete all orders in a timely manner

• Help to coordinate print issue reports.

• Maintain strong working relationships and communications with internal groups: sales, production, and Salesforce Admin

Skill/Job Requirements:

· 2+ years of relevant experience in order management, customer service, operations

· Read and interpret terms and conditions, written guidelines, directions, and correspondence

· Ability to work independently with general direction

· Excellent written communication and verbal communication skills

· Detail-oriented with analytical skills to solve practical problems and deal with a variety of variables in situations where only limited standardization exists

· Ability to work in a fast-paced work environment with tight deadlines and multiple deliverables

· Commitment to continuous improvement

· Knowledge of Salesforce a plus

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Apply Online


Traffic Coordinator, Marine

The traffic coordinator's main job is ad preflight for all magazines. Ad preflight includes checking ad supplied by client for size, color. Communicating with sales representatives and clients with advertisement issues. They will also be responsible for maintaining excel files with ad / client information. Coordinators will also proof files for aesthetics, errors, etc. A traffic coordinator will work closely with the production manager as well as the design artists.

Qualifications:

  • Two-year technical degree in a related field or high school graduate with a minimum of 4 years of similar work experience, or a combination of education and experience.
  • Working knowledge of software to include; Adobe Creative Suite Products, Word and Excel.
  • Requires the ability to operate a variety of standard office equipment, such as a computer and keyboard, telephones & photocopiers.
  • Must be able to work under tight deadlines and work late as needed.

Active Interest Media values diversity in the workplace and is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, age, or any other characteristic protected by law.